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IgG Food MAP with Candida + Yeast

Uncovering Food Sensitivities

IgG food sensitivities provide a useful guide for personalized rotation/elimination diets with clinical impact associated with a variety of diseases. People may continue to eat offending foods unaware of their potential adverse effects, because symptoms associated with food sensitivities may occur hours or days after the offending food was eaten.

MosaicDX’s IgG Food MAP test is a comprehensive food sensitivity test that measures antibodies to 190 common foods, herbs, and spices typically found in Western, Asian, and Mediterranean diets. This test is available in both serum and dried blood spot formats, making it easy and convenient for patients. By identifying food sensitivities, this test can help individuals customize their diet leading to improvements in overall health and wellbeing.

What Patients Might Benefit from IgG Food Map?

There are a number of symptoms and conditions associated with IgG food sensitivities. Elimination/Rotation diets driven by serum or blood-spot analysis prove impactful in relieving symptoms.

ADHD ▪️ Asthma ▪️ Autism ▪️ Autoimmune Disease ▪️ Behavioral Problems ▪️ Celiac Disease ▪️ Crohn’s Disease ▪️ Depression ▪️ GI Upset – Gas, Bloating, Diarrhea ▪️ Headaches / Migraines ▪️ IBD Irritable Bowel Syndrome ▪️ Skin Rash, Itching, Eczema ▪️ Ulcerative Colitis ▪️ Weight gain / Obesity


Why Test IgG Antibodies?

IgG Food Sensitivity testing is a simple and effect way to identify foods that can trigger an inflammatory response. The provided personalized rotation/elimination diet provides an easier and more convenient approach versus removal of all common foods known to cause allergies/sensitivities, which is often time-consuming and laborious.

Addressing identified food sensitivities can be impactful as they often contribute to chronic health issues. Identifying these sensitivities can be crucial to healing the body and relieving unexplained signs and symptoms.

Why does MosaicDX’s IgG Food Map test for reactions to Candida?

Elevations in IgG antibodies to candida can signal candida overgrowth in the GI tract. Candida overgrowth in the gut can lead to increased intestinal permeability (also referred to as leaky gut), which may allow larger food molecules to pass through the gut lining and trigger an IgG-mediated immune response. Dysbiosis of the gut including candida overgrowth has been associated with the development of leaky gut and in turn, development of leaky gut has been associated clinically with the development of food sensitivities.

Candida overgrowth can cause a wide range of digestive symptoms including bloating, gas, constipation, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Additional symptoms associated with candida overgrowth include fatigue and weakness, skin and nail infections, oral thrush, brain fog and mood changes, and food cravings.

Addressing candida overgrowth will aid in healing the gut and decreasing food sensitivities. Depending on the levels of candida and the severity of a patient’s symptoms, further testing may be recommended, including Comprehensive Stool Test and/or Organic Acids Test.

What is the difference between food allergy vs. food sensitivity?

While the terms food allergy and food sensitivity are often used interchangeably to describe adverse reactions to food, they are not the same thing.

Food allergies refer to an immune-mediated process that involves the production of IgE antibodies in response to a particular antigen. IgE mediated reactions are immediate (immediate hypersensitivity or Type 1 hypersensitivity reactions) and can result in a range of symptoms from more mild (e.g., hives, itching, digestive upset) to more significant (e.g., swelling of mucous membranes of the oral mucosa) to severe (life-threatening anaphylaxis).

Food sensitivities refer to a range of symptoms triggered by certain foods that generally tend to be less severe – and not life threatening – and include common complaints such as headaches, digestive upset, skin rashes, and fatigue. One proposed mechanism for the development of food sensitivities relates to the formation of IgG antibodies in response to certain foods which may be assessed on laboratory profiles.

Finally, the term food intolerance has also been used clinically to describe the body’s difficulty digesting or metabolizing a particular food component that results in symptoms such as nausea, bloating, gas, or even diarrhea. Classic examples of a food intolerances include lactose intolerance (due to a lactase enzyme deficiency), fructose intolerance (due to difficulty absorbing fructose) and reactions to certain food chemicals, additives, or preservatives such as histamines or sulfites.

Learn More About the IgG FoodMAP with Candida + Yeast: Explore FAQs

Analytes List

The IgG Food MAP measures antibodies to 190 common foods, herbs, and spices, common in the Western, Asian, and Mediterranean diets.

With our new xMAP® (Multiple Analyte Profiling) technology, we’ve enhanced identification precision by utilizing intense signaling from fluorescents. This testing procedure is fully automated, making it more precise and dependable, while also producing less waste through the use of multiplexed magnetic beads. Additionally, the sample requires less blood, making it easier to collect. We’ve also expanded our panel by including specific allergens for problematic food categories, resulting in a more comprehensive testing panel.




Cheddar Cheese

Cow’s Milk

Goat’s Milk

Mozzarella Cheese

Sheep’s Yogurt



Fish / Seafood








Jack Mackerel




Pacific Mackerel (Saba)

Pacific Saury


Red Snapper





Small Clam






Acai Berry





















Passion Fruit













Bamboo Shoot

Bean Sprout


Bell Pepper

Bitter Gourd


Brussel Sprout

Burdock Root





Chili Pepper



Enoki Mushroom





Lotus Root

Napa Cabbage

Olive (Green)


Portabella Mushroom




Seaweed Kombu Kelp

Seaweed Nori

Seaweed Wakame

Shitake Mushroom


Sweet Potato



Yellow Squash



Herbs / Spices


Bay Leaf

Black Pepper

Cayenne Pepper











Mustard Seed








Vanilla Bean

Meat / Fowl




Egg White

Egg Yolk





Beans and Peas

Adzuki Bean

Black Bean

Garbanzo Bean

Green Bean

Green Pea

Kidney Bean


Lima Bean

Mung Bean

Navy Bean

Pinto Bean

















Wheat Gluten

Whole Wheat

Nuts / Seeds


Brazil Nut



Chia Seed

Flax Seed


Hemp Seed

Macadamia Nut



Pine Nut


Pumpkin Seed

Sesame Seed

Sunflower Seed




Candida Albicans

Cane Sugar

Cocoa Bean


Green Tea


Meat Glue

Oolong Tea


Sample Reports

The IgG test report is a useful resource for practitioners who want to gain valuable insights into the underlying causes of illnesses.

IgG Food MAP with Candida + Yeast DBS Sample Test Report (Sample Report)

IgG Food Map with Candida + Yeast Serum Sample Test Report (Sample Report)

Test Prep and Instructions

MosaicDX offers patient-friendly sample collection kits that simplify testing. Our kits include visual, step-by-step instructions for test preparation and sample collection, personalized shipping cards, and pediatric collection bags if needed. With MosaicDX, patients can easily collect samples for testing with confidence and accuracy.

Dried Blood Spot Collection Kit Instructions

Blood Sample Collection Instructions

Shipping Information Within the United States

Sample Collection When Your Practitioner has Ordered Multiple Test Types

Related Symptoms and Condition

There are a number of symptoms and diseases associated with IgG food sensitivities. Elimination/Rotation diets driven by serum or blood-spot analysis prove impactful in relieving symptoms.

Symptoms associated with IgG food sensitivities:

▪️ Headaches/Migraines

▪️ Weight Gain/Obesity

▪️ GI Upset – Gas, Bloating, Diarrhea

▪️ Skin Rash, Itching, Eczema

▪️ Behavioral problems

Diseases associated with IgG food sensitivities:

▪️ Irritable Bowel Syndrome

▪️ IBD

▪️ Crohn’s Disease

▪️ Autoimmune disease

▪️ Asthma


▪️ Depression

▪️ Celiac disease

▪️ Ulcerative Colitis

▪️ Autism

Uncovering Inflammation Causes with IgG Food Map

As a Clinical Educator at MosaicDX, Lindsay Goddard, RD provides valuable insights into how the IgG Food Map with Candida and Yeast can shed light on one of the root causes of inflammation in the body and help patients who are struggling with unknown or idiopathic symptoms.

Frequently Asked Questions

Why test total IgG versus IgG 4 alone?

MosaicDX offers a more comprehensive measurement of total IgG antibodies to different food-based antigens and Candida, in contrast to many laboratories that only measure IgG4 molecules. IgG4 antibodies account for less than 6% of the total IgG antibodies, and testing for only IgG4 antibodies limits the clinician’s ability to identify foods that could cause significant clinical reactions in their patients.

The objective of IgG-mediated food allergy testing is to identify foods that can trigger multiple adverse reactions. IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 antibodies can cause inflammation by creating large immune complexes or lattices that activate complement proteins. On the other hand, IgG4 antibodies to food antigens usually do not activate complement and therefore do not typically cause inflammation.

In an article by Kemeny et al., they emphasized the importance of measuring all subtypes of IgG antibodies. Their research found that patients with celiac disease had elevated IgG1 antibodies to gluten, but none had elevated IgG4 antibodies to gluten. However, elevated levels of IgG4 antibodies still indicate the presence of immune reactions against food antigens.

As a patient, how does the ordering process work for MosaicDX tests?

The ordering process for MosaicDX tests starts with your healthcare practitioner assessing your symptoms and recommending the most appropriate test.

Once a test has been recommended, collection kits can be conveniently ordered and delivered straight to your doorstep. If you already have a collection kit, you can register your test and begin the process at your convenience.

It is important to carefully follow the collection instructions and include all required information about yourself and your specimens when registering your test. When your specimens are collected, you can use the prepaid shipping materials provided in your kit to ship them to MosaicDX. Your results will be accessible online via the MosaicDX portal. We recommend scheduling an appointment with your healthcare practitioner to discuss your results and develop a plan for your healthcare.

If you are located outside of the U.S., our customer service team can assist you in finding a distributor in your country. In countries where a distributor is not required, you can place an order through our international patient ordering site. Please note that all international shipping costs must be paid prior to shipping the kit. 

What is IgG?

IgG is the major antibody found in serum. IgGs are composed of two fragment antigen binding (Fab) regions that contain the antigen binding sites and the Fc region, which is responsible for most of the biologic activity of the antibodies (Figure 1). An antigen is a substance that causes the immune system to produce an antibody that specifically reacts with it. IgG-mediated reactions to food antigens may be delayed by several hours or days, whereas IgE food antibody reactions are quite immediate.

Human IgG is separated into four subclasses denoted IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4. Each subclass varies in abundance and biological function. IgG1 and IgG3 are predominantly responsible for antibody protection against reinfection. IgG2 antibodies are opsonic (marking a pathogen for ingestion and destruction) and develop in response to carbohydrate polysaccharide antigens. IgG4 molecules function as skin-sensitizing immunoglobulins and are thought to block antibodies produced in response to chronic exposure to antigens.

What is the clinical significance of IgG testing?

The clinical significance of IgG food testing was illustrated in an early article published by an otolaryngologist who reported that the majority of his patients had substantial health improvements after eliminating foods found positive by IgG food allergy testing. The study demonstrated a 71% success rate for all symptoms, achieving at least a 75% relief. Of particular interest was the group of patients with chronic, disabling symptoms, unresponsive to other intensive treatments. Symptoms most commonly improved (75%-100%) on the elimination diets included asthma, coughing, ringing in the ears, chronic fatigue, headaches, gas, bloating, diarrhea, skin rash and itching, and nasal congestion. The most common IgG food allergies were to cow’s milk, garlic, mustard, egg yolk, tea, and chocolate. A recent study reported that 93% of non-celiac, gluten-sensitive patients showed anti-gliadin IgG antibody disappearance after a six-month adherence to a gluten-free diet. The IgG disappearance was closely related to a significant improvement of both gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms. High IgG antibody levels have frequently been found in children with diabetes mellitus, Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, and in those considered to be obese. IgG food test results are often used to develop food antibody-guided exclusion/ elimination diets. The implementation of such diets has been shown to alleviate symptoms associated with nonceliac gluten sensitivity and food sensitivity-induced atopic conditions, reduce the frequency of migraine headaches, decrease the occurrence of diarrhea, decrease failure–to-thrive among children with cystic fibrosis, reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, improve rectal compliance, decrease stool frequency in Crohn’s disease, prevent seizures and hyperkinetic behavior in children with epilepsy, and ameliorate kidney function in glomerulonephritis. Food elimination diets also hold promise for the improvement of behaviors associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

What testing do you recommend to gain insight into a patient’s overall health and factors that may be contributing to disease?

The following tests provide valuable insight into metabolism, nutrient needs, food sensitivities and metal toxicity.

IgG Food Map with Candida + Yeast

Heavy Metals Hair

Organic Acids Test

How long does a serum sample last as a viable specimen?

Serum samples have a relatively stable nature and can be stored in a refrigerator for up to 30 days and in a freezer for six months.

Will the lipid derivative of foods on the IgG test be a problem?

The immune system’s IgG response targets proteins, not lipids. Some individuals may wonder whether they can consume butter if they are sensitive to casein or soy lecithin if they are sensitive to soy. Trace amounts of the corresponding protein have been discovered during the extraction process for these components. However, the protein levels are generally low and not likely to cause issues. The majority of individuals can tolerate these trace amounts, but a few may not. For those uncommon situations, an elimination and reintroduction phase could aid in further examination.

If I stopped eating a particular food, and it is not showing up on the results as a problem, do I still need to remove it?

It can take as long as 6 months after eliminating a food from the diet for the IgG response to that specific food antigen to return to normal levels. If a person is not consuming the food, or has not done so in over 6 months, it is unlikely to trigger a significant immune response and will not appear as elevated on the test. A low reactivity to a particular food does not imply that the person can now tolerate it or that the food can be reintroduced safely. It only indicates that the person has been diligent in avoiding it. Conversely, if a person has avoided consuming a specific food and the test result shows positive, cross-contamination with structurally similar proteins in the diet is likely responsible.

How long does a dry blood spot sample last as a viable specimen?

Dry Blood Spot samples have a relatively stable nature and can be stored in a refrigerator for up to 31 days and in a freezer for six months.

Should I stop medications or supplements prior to testing?

Please refer to your test’s specific Test Preparation and Instructions for more information regarding the potential effects of medications, foods, and supplements on this test.

You make also consult your healthcare provider prior to making any changes to your medications.

What location can a patient visit to have blood drawn?

  1. Visit AnyLabTest Now to find a location near you.

A. Schedule an appointment online, call for assistance, or just show up for your lab test — no appointment necessary.

B. Bring the following to your appointment:

i. $35 specimen collection and processing fee for the first two tubes, and $5 for any additional tubes

ii. Test collection kit

iii. Included gel pack (freeze ahead of time)

iv. Collection instructions

v. Test Requisition Form with doctor’s signature

vi. UPS return bag (included in the test kit)

  1. Alpha Phlebotomy Group offers three options

A. In Home Collections – where the phlebotomist comes to you $95 per collection (includes mileage for up to 40 miles, then .59 / mile for every mile over that. Any cancellations less than 12 hours from scheduled collection will incur a $40 cancellation / rescheduling fee. Stat collections are an additional $55 (less than 24 hours notice)

B. Collection Draw Site Locations – where APG provides you with a location that is familiar with GPL orders. Prices for collections vary by phlebotomist (average charge range is $50-65 per collection)

C. Mobile Event Collections for Groups – Have a group of 20 blood collections? Create a blood draw corporate or wellness event. Price per participant is $35. Events require a minimum of 6 draws per hour otherwise additional hourly fees may apply.

  1. Los Angeles and Orange County Areas: Contact Mobile Phlebotomy Service

They will complete the blood draw directly from your home. The cost is $80. Call 909-985-5562 to make an appointment. Standard hours of operation are 6:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.

  1. Kansas City Metro Areas: Contact Test Smartly Labs.

Laboratory Specimen Collections are provided at $35 per patient. Collection hours are Monday through Friday 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. at all four of the TSL Kansas City area locations. Call 816-800-9699 to set up your appointment.

Have a question? We've got answers.

Our team of experts can help you find exactly what you need. Contact us now and let's get started.

Clinical References

IgG Allergy & Immunodeficiency

▪️ Immunodeficiency, Gastrointestinal Candidiasis, Wheat and Dairy Sensitivity, Abnormal Urine Arabinose, and Autism: A Case Study

▪️ Allergy and the chronic fatigue syndrome

▪️ Food Allergy in Cystic Fibrosis

▪️ Treating Irritable Bowel Syndrome with a Food Elimination Diet Followed by Food Challenge and Probiotics

▪️ Exposure to cow’s milk during the first 3 months of life is associated with increased levels of IgG subclass antibodies to beta-lactoglobulin to 8 years

▪️ Food elimination based on IgG antibodies in irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial

▪️ The gut-joint axis: cross reactive food antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis

▪️ Milk hypersensitivity in young adults

▪️ A vegan diet free of gluten improves the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis: the effects on arthritis correlate with a reduction in antibodies to food antigens

▪️ Association of genes within the major histocompatibility complex with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

▪️ Immunogenetic studies in autism and related disorders

▪️ Increased serum albumin, gamma globulin, immunoglobulin IgG, and IgG2 and IgG4 in autism

▪️ Gastrointestinal manifestations of primary immunodeficiency disorders

▪️ Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) Vaccine as a Potential Cause of Encephalitis (Brain Inflammation) in Children

▪️ An evaluation of serious neurological disorders following immunization: a comparison of whole cell pertussis and acellular pertussis vaccines

▪️ Genetic and immunologic considerations in autism

▪️ Reduced Natural Killer Cell activity in Autism

▪️ Familial clustering of autoimmune disorders and evaluation of medical risk factors in autism

▪️ Immune abnormalities in patients with autism

▪️ Depressed Lymphocyte responsiveness in autistic children

▪️ Immunologic abnormalities in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

▪️ Immunodeficiency, gastrointestinal Candidiasis, wheat and dairy sensitivity, abnormal urine arabinose, and autism: A case study

▪️ Anderson S, Wakeley P, Wibberley G, et al. Development and evaluation of a Luminex multiplex serology assay to detect antibodies to bovine herpes virus 1, parainfluenza 3 virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus, with comparison to existing ELISA detection methods. J Immunol Methods 2011;366:79-88.

▪️ Gimenez-Lirola LG, Jiang Y-H, Sun D, et al. Simultaneous Detection of Antibodies against Apx Toxins ApxI, ApxII, ApxIII, and ApxIV in Pigs with Known and Unknown Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Exposure Using a Multiplexing Liquid Array Platform. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2014;21(1):85-95.

▪️ Langenhorst RJ, Lawson S, Kittawornrat A, et al. Development of a fluorescent microsphere immunoassay for detection of antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus using oral fluid samples as an alternative to serum-based assays. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2012;19(2):180-9.

▪️ Smits GP, van Gageldonk PG, Schouls LM, et al. Development of a Bead- Based Multiplex Immunoassay for Simultaneous Quantitative Detection of IgG Serum Antibodies against Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella- Zoster Virus. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2012;19(3):396-400.

Inflammatory Disorders

▪️ Shaw, W. Possible synergistic effects of nonesterified fatty acids and lysolecithins, a toxic methionine metabolite, and ammonia in the production of hepatic encephalopathy and schizophrenia. Orthomolecular Medicine. 1988.3: 87.

▪️ Shaw, W. Possible role of lysolecithins and nonesterified fatty acids in the pathogenesis of Reye’s syndrome, sudden infant death syndrome, acute pancreatitis, and diabetic ketoacidosis. Clin. Chem. 1985. 31:1109.

▪️ Alvarez, X.A., Mouzo, R., Pichel, V., Pérez P., et al. Double-blind placebo-controlled study with citicoline in APOE genotyped Alzheimer’s disease patients. Effects on cognitive performance, brain bioelectrical activity and cerebral perfusion. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1999 Nov;21(9):633-44.

▪️ Fioravanti, M. and Yanagi, M. Cytidinediphosphocholine (CDP-choline) for cognitive and behavioural disturbances associated with chronic cerebral disorders in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Apr 18;(2):CD000269.

▪️ Rosenson, R.S. and Gelb, M.H. Secretory phospholipase A2: A multifaceted family of proatherogenic enzymes. Current Cardiology Reports 2009, 11:445–451.

▪️ Farooqui, A.A., Ong, W., and Horrocks, L.A. Inhibitors of brain phospholipase A2 activity: Their neuropharmacological effects and therapeutic importance for the treatment of neurologic disorders. Pharmacol Rev 58:591–620, 2006

▪️ Wang, M., Hao, F.Y., J.G. Wang, and Xiao, W. Group IIa secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2IIa)and progression in patients with lung cancer. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 2014; 18: 2648-2654

▪️ Pniewska, E., Sokolowska, M., Kupry-Lipinska, I., et al. The step further to understand the role of cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha and group X secretory phospholipase A2 in allergic Inflammation: pilot study. Biomed Red Int. Volume 2014, Article ID 670814, 9 pages

▪️ Touqui, L. and Alaoui-El-Azher, M. Mammalian secreted phospholipases A2 and their pathophysiological significance in inflammatory diseases. Current Molecular Medicine 2001, 1, 739-754 739

▪️ Putignano, S., Gareri, P., Castagna, A., et al. Retrospective and observational study to assess the efficacy of citicoline(CDP-choline) in elderly patients suffering from stupor related to complex geriatric syndrome. Clinical Interventions in Aging 2012:7 113–118.

▪️ Farooqui, A.A. and Horrocks, L.A. Phospholipase A2-generated lipid mediators in the brain: The good, the bad, and the ugly. The Neuroscientist, Vol. 12, No. 3, 245-260 (2006)

▪️ Mahmoudabadi, A.Z., Zarrin, M., and Miry, S. Phospholipase activity of Candida albicans isolated from vagina and urine samples. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2010; 3(4): 169-73.

▪️ Bell , J.G., MacKinlay , E.E., Dick, J.R., et al. Essential fatty acids and phospholipase A-2 in autistic spectrum disorders. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids Volume 71, Issue 4 , October 2004, Pages 201-204

▪️ Tavares, H., Yacubian, J., Talib, L.L., et al. Increased phospholipase A2 activity in schizophrenia with absent response to niacin. Schizophr Res. 2003 May 1;61(1):1-6.

▪️ Ross, B.M. , Hughes, B. , Kish, S.J. , and Warsh, J.J. Serum calcium-independent phospholipase A2 activity in bipolar affective disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2006 Jun;8(3):265-70.

▪️ Eckert, G.P. , Schaeffer, E.L., Schmitt, A., et al. Increased brain membrane fluidity in schizophrenia. Pharmacopsychiatry 2011 Jun;44(4):161-2.

▪️ Titsworth, W.L., Liu, N.K., and Xu, X.M. Role of Secretory phospholipase A2 in CNS inflammation: Implications in traumatic spinal cord injury. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2008 June ; 7(3): 254–269

▪️ Singh, M., Kapoor, A., Bhatnagar, A. (2015) Oxidative and reductive metabolism of lipid-peroxidation derived carbonyls. Chemico-Biological Interactions.

▪️ Folsom, AN; Gwin KH; Ilich J. (2012) Zinc as a Modulator of Chronic, Inflammatory Intestinal Disorders with Focus on Celiac Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Syndrome and Crohn’s Disease. J Nutr Food Sci. 2: 116.

▪️ Simopoulos AP. (2002). The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother. 56 (8): 365- 379.

▪️ Adibhatla RM and Hatcher JF. (2005). Cytidine 5’-Diphosphocholine (CDP-Choline) in Stroke and Other CNS Disorders. Neurochemical Research. 30: 15-23.

▪️ Tuthill R. (1996) Hair lead levels related to children’s classroom attention-deficit behavior. Archives of Environmental Health. 51: 214-225.

▪️ Drisko J, Bischoff B, Hall M, McCallum R. Treating irritable bowel syndrome with a food elimination diet followed by food challenge and probiotics. (2006). J Am Coll Nutr. 25 (6): 514-522.

▪️ Shaw, W. Possible synergistic effects of nonesterified fatty acids and lysolecithins, a toxic methionine metabolite, and ammonia in the production of hepatic encephalopathy and schizophrenia. Orthomolecular Medicine. 1988.3: 87.

▪️ Shaw, W. Possible role of lysolecithins and nonesterified fatty acids in the pathogenesis of Reye’s syndrome, sudden infant death syndrome, acute pancreatitis, and diabetic ketoacidosis. Clin. Chem. 1985. 31:1109.